• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail

The information on this page is current as of Mar 22, 2024.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

New Search
Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[CITE: 21CFR172.515]



Subpart F - Flavoring Agents and Related Substances

Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.

Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended effect, and otherwise in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) They consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, prior-sanctioned for such use, or regulated by an appropriate section in this part.

Acetal; acetaldehyde diethyl acetal.

Acetaldehyde phenethyl propyl acetal.

Acetanisole; 4'-methoxyacetophenone.

Acetophenone; methyl phenyl ketone.

Allyl anthranilate.

Allyl butyrate.

Allyl cinnamate.

Allyl cyclohexaneacetate.

Allyl cyclohexanebutyrate.

Allyl cyclohexanehexanoate.

Allyl cyclohexaneproprionate.

Allyl cyclohexanevalerate.

Allyl disulfide.

Allyl 2-ethylbutyrate.

Allyl hexanoate; allyl caproate.

Allyl [alpha]-ionone; 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclo-hexene-1-yl)-1,6-heptadiene-3-one.

Allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil.

Allyl isovalerate.

Allyl mercaptan; 2-propene-1-thiol.

Allyl nonanoate.

Allyl octanoate.

Allyl phenoxyacetate.

Allyl phenylacetate.

Allyl propionate.

Allyl sorbate; allyl 2,4-hexadienoate.

Allyl sulfide.

Allyl tiglate; allyl trans- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Allyl 10-undecenoate.

Ammonium isovalerate.

Ammonium sulfide.

Amyl alcohol; pentyl alcohol.

Amyl butyrate.


[alpha]-Amylcinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl acetate.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl alcohol.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl formate.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl isovalerate.

Amyl formate.

Amyl heptanoate.

Amyl hexanoate.

Amyl octanoate.

Anisole; methoxybenzene.

Anisyl acetate.

Anisyl alcohol; p- methoxybenzyl alcohol.

Anisyl butyrate

Anisyl formate.

Anisyl phenylacetate.

Anisyl propionate.

Beechwood creosote.

Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

Benzaldehyde glyceryl acetal; 2-phenyl-m- dioxan-5-ol.

Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal; 4-methyl-2-phenyl-m- dioxolane.

Benzenethiol; thiophenol.

Benzoin; 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone.

Benzyl acetate.

Benzyl acetoacetate.

Benzyl alcohol.

Benzyl benzoate.

Benzyl butyl ether.

Benzyl butyrate.

Benzyl cinnamate.

Benzyl 2,3-dimethylcrotonate; benzyl methyl tiglate.

Benzyl disulfide; dibenzyl disulfide.

Benzyl ethyl ether.

Benzyl formate.

3-Benzyl-4-heptanone; benzyl dipropyl ketone.

Benzyl isobutyrate.

Benzyl isovalerate.

Benzyl mercaptan; [alpha]-toluenethiol.

Benzyl methoxyethyl acetal; acetaldehyde benzyl [beta]-methoxyethyl acetal.

Benzyl phenylacetate.

Benzyl propionate.

Benzyl salicylate.

Birch tar oil.

Borneol; d- camphanol.

Bornyl acetate.

Bornyl formate.

Bornyl isovalerate.

Bornyl valerate.

[beta]-Bourbonene; 1,2,3,3a,3b[beta],4,5,6,6a[beta],6b[alpha]-deca-hydro-l[alpha]-isopropyl-3aa-methyl-6-methylene-cyclobuta [1,2:3,4] dicyclopentene.


2-Butanone; methyl ethyl ketone.

Butter acids.

Butter esters.

Butyl acetate.

Butyl acetoacetate.

Butyl alcohol; 1-butanol.

Butyl anthranilate.

Butyl butyrate.

Butyl butyryllactate; lactic acid, butyl ester, butyrate.


Butyl cinnamate.

Butyl 2-decenoate.

Butyl ethyl malonate.

Butyl formate.

Butyl heptanoate.

Butyl hexanoate.

Butyl p- hydroxybenzoate.

Butyl isobutyrate.

Butyl isovalerate.

Butyl lactate.

Butyl laurate.

Butyl levulinate.

Butyl phenylacetate.

Butyl propionate.

Butyl stearate.

Butyl sulfide.

Butyl 10-undecenoate.

Butyl valerate.



Camphene; 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylenenorbornane.

d- Camphor.

Carvacrol; 2-p- cymenol.

Carvacryl ethyl ether; 2-ethoxy-p- cymene.

Carveol; p- mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol.

4-Carvomenthenol; 1-p- menthen-4-ol; 4-terpinenol.

cis Carvone oxide; 1,6-epoxy-p- menth-8-en-2-one.

Carvyl acetate.

Carvyl propionate.


Caryophyllene alcohol.

Caryophyllene alcohol acetate.

[beta]-Caryophyllene oxide; 4-12,12-trimethyl-9-methylene-5-oxatricylo [ 4 6] dodecane.

Cedarwood oil alcohols.

Cedarwood oil terpenes.


Cinnamaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal.

Cinnamic acid.

Cinnamyl acetate.

Cinnamyl alcohol; 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ol.

Cinnamyl benzoate.

Cinnamyl butyrate.

Cinnamyl cinnamate.

Cinnamyl formate.

Cinnamyl isobutyrate.

Cinnamyl isovalerate.

Cinnamyl phenylacetate.

Cinnamyl propionate.

Citral diethyl acetal; 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal diethyl acetal.

Citral dimethyl acetal; 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal dimethyl acetal.

Citral propylene glycol acetal.

Citronellal; 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal; rhodinal.

Citronellol; 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol; d- citronellol.


Citronellyl acetate.

Citronellyl butyrate.

Citronellyl formate.

Citronellyl isobutyrate.

Citronellyl phenylacetate.

Citronellyl propionate.

Citronellyl valerate.

p- Cresol.

Cuminaldehyde; cuminal; p- isopropyl benzaldehyde.

Cyclohexaneacetic acid.

Cyclohexaneethyl acetate.

Cyclohexyl acetate.

Cyclohexyl anthranilate.

Cyclohexyl butyrate.

Cyclohexyl cinnamate.

Cyclohexyl formate.

Cyclohexyl isovalerate.

Cyclohexyl propionate.

p- Cymene.

γ-Decalactone; 4-hydroxy-decanoic acid, γ-lactone.

γ-Decalactone; 5-hydroxy-decanoic acid, δ-lactone.

Decanal dimethyl acetal.

1-Decanol; decylic alcohol.


3-Decen-2-one; heptylidene acetone.

Decyl actate.

Decyl butyrate.

Decyl propionate.

Dibenzyl ether.

4,4-Dibutyl-γ-butyrolactone; 4,4-dibutyl-4-hydroxy-butyric acid, γ-lactone.

Dibutyl sebacate.

Diethyl malate.

Diethyl malonate; ethyl malonate.

Diethyl sebacate.

Diethyl succinate.

Diethyl tartrate.


Dihydrocarveol; 8-p- menthen-2-ol; 6-methyl-3-isopropenylcyclohexanol.


Dihydrocarvyl acetate.

m- Dimethoxybenzene.

p- Dimethoxybenzene; dimethyl hydroquinone.


[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate; phenyldimethylcarbinyl isobutyrate.


2,6-Dimethyl octanal; isodecylaldehyde.

3,7-Dimethyl-1-octanol; tetrahydrogeraniol.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl acetate; benzylpropyl acetate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl acetate.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol; dimethylbenzyl carbinol.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl butyrate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl butyrate.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl formate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl formate.

Dimethyl succinate.

1,3-Diphenyl-2-propanone; dibenzyl ketone.

delta-Dodecalactone; 5-hydroxydodecanoic acid, deltalactone.

γ-Dodecalactone; 4-hydroxydodecanoic acid γ-lactone.




Ethyl acetoacetate.

Ethyl 2-acetyl-3-phenylpropionate; ethylbenzyl acetoacetate.

Ethyl aconitate, mixed esters.

Ethyl Ï쳌-anisate.

Ethyl anthranilate.

Ethyl benzoate.

Ethyl benzoylacetate.

[alpha]-Ethylbenzyl butyrate; [alpha]-phenylpropyl butyrate.

Ethyl brassylate; tridecanedioic acid cyclic ethylene glycol diester; cyclo 1,13-ethyl-enedioxytridecan-1,13-dione.

2-Ethylbutyl acetate.


2-Ethylbutyric acid.

Ethyl cinnamate.

Ethyl crotonate; trans- 2-butenoic acid ethylester.

Ethyl cyclohexanepropionate.

Ethyl decanoate.


Ethyl 2-furanpropionate.

4-Ethylguaiacol; 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol.

Ethyl heptanoate.

2-Ethyl-2-heptenal; 2-ethyl-3-butylacrolein.

Ethyl hexanoate.

Ethyl isobutyrate.

Ethyl isovalerate.

Ethyl lactate.

Ethyl laurate.

Ethyl levulinate.

Ethyl maltol; 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one.

Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Ethyl myristate.

Ethyl nitrite.

Ethyl nonanoate.

Ethyl 2-nonynoate; ethyl octyne carbonate.

Ethyl octanoate.

Ethyl oleate.

Ethyl phenylacetate.

Ethyl 4-phenylbutyrate.

Ethyl 3-phenylglycidate.

Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate; ethyl hydrocinnamate.

Ethyl propionate.

Ethyl pyruvate.

Ethyl salicylate.

Ethyl sorbate; ethyl 2,4-hexadienoate.

Ethyl tiglate; ethyl trans- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Ethyl undecanoate.

Ethyl 10-undecenoate.

Ethyl valerate.

Eucalyptol; 1,8-epoxy-p- menthane; cineole.

Eugenyl acetate.

Eugenyl benzoate.

Eugenyl formate.

Farnesol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol.

d- Fenchone; d- 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-norbornanone.

Fenchyl alcohol; 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-norbornanol.

Formic acid

(2-Furyl)-2-propanone; furyl acetone.

1-Furyl-2-propanone; furyl acetone.

Fusel oil, refined (mixed amyl alcohols).

Geranyl acetoacetate; trans- 3,7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadien-1-yl acetoacetate.

Geranyl acetone; 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one.

Geranyl benzoate.

Geranyl butyrate.

Geranyl formate.

Geranyl hexanoate

Geranyl isobutyrate.

Geranyl isovalerate.

Geranyl phenylacetate.

Geranyl propionate.

Glucose pentaacetate.

Guaiacol; μ-methoxyphenol.

Guaiacyl acetate; μ-methoxyphenyl acetate.

Guaiacyl phenylacetate.

Guaiene; 1,4-dimethyl-7-isopropenyl-[delta]9,10-octahydroazulene.

Guaiol acetate; 1,4-dimethyl-7-([alpha]-hydroxy-isopropyl)-δ9,10-octahydroazulene acetate.

γ-Heptalactone; 4-hydroxyheptanoic acid, γ-lactone.

Heptanal; enanthaldehyde.

Heptanal dimethyl acetal.

Heptanal 1,2-glyceryl acetal.

2,3-Heptanedione; acetyl valeryl.


2-Heptanone; methyl amyl ketone.

3-Heptanone; ethyl butyl ketone.

4-Heptanone; dipropyl ketone.

cis- 4-Heptenal; cis- 4-hepten-1-al.

Heptyl acetate.

Heptyl alcohol; enanthic alcohol.

Heptyl butyrate.

Heptyl cinnamate.

Heptyl formate.

Heptyl isobutyrate.

Heptyl octanoate.

1-Hexadecanol; cetyl alcohol.

[PI]-6-Hexadecenlactone; 16-hydroxy-6-hexadecenoic acid, [PI]-lactone; ambrettolide.

γ-Hexalactone; 4-hydroxyhexanoic acid, γ-lactone; tonkalide.

Hexanal; caproic aldehyde.

2,3-Hexanedione; acetyl butyryl.

Hexanoic acid; caproic acid.



3-Hexen-1-ol; leaf alcohol.

2-Hexen-1-yl acetate.

3-Hexenyl isovalerate.

3-Hexenyl 2-methylbutyrate.

3-Hexenyl phenylacetate; cis- 3-hexenyl phenylacetate.

Hexyl acetate.


Hexyl alcohol.

Hexyl butyrate.


Hexyl formate.

Hexyl hexanoate.

2-Hexylidene cyclopentanone.

Hexyl isovalerate.

Hexyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Hexyl octanoate.

Hexyl phenylacetate; n- hexyl phenylacetate.

Hexyl propionate.

Hydroxycitronellal; 3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octanal.

Hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal.

Hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal.

Hydroxycitronellol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,7-octanediol.

N- (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-nonanamide; pelargonyl vanillylamide.

5-Hydroxy-4-octanone; butyroin.

4-(p- Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone; p- hydroxybenzyl acetone.


[alpha]-Ionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one.

[beta]-Ionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one.

[alpha]-Irone; 4-(2,5,6,6-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one; 6-methylionone.

Isoamyl acetate.

Isoamyl acetoacetate.

Isoamyl alcohol; isopentyl alcohol; 3-methyl-1-butanol.

Isoamyl benzoate.

Isoamyl butyrate.

Isoamyl cinnamate.

Isoamyl formate.

Isoamyl 2-furanbutyrate; [alpha]-isoamyl furfurylpropionate.

Isoamyl 2-furanpropionate; [alpha]-isoamyl furfurylacetate.

Isoamyl hexanoate.

Isoamyl isobutyrate.

Isoamyl isovalerate.

Isoamyl laurate.

Isoamyl-2-methylbutyrate; isopentyl-2-methylbutyrate.

Isoamyl nonanoate.

Isoamyl octanoate.

Isoamyl phenylacetate.

Isoamyl propionate.

Isoamyl pyruvate.

Isoamyl salicylate.


Isobornyl acetate.

Isobornyl formate.

Isobornyl isovalerate.

Isobornyl propionate.

Isobutyl acetate.

Isobutyl acetoacetate.

Isobutyl alcohol.

Isobutyl angelate; isobutyl cis- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Isobutyl anthranilate.

Isobutyl benzoate.

Isobutyl butyrate.

Isobutyl cinnamate.

Isobutyl formate.

Isobutyl 2-furanpropionate.

Isobutyl heptanoate.

Isobutyl hexanoate.

Isobutyl isobutyrate.

[alpha]-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol; isobutyl benzyl carbinol; 4-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pentanol.

Isobutyl phenylacetate.

Isobutyl propionate.

Isobutyl salicylate.



Isobutyric acid.

Isoeugenol; 2-methoxy-4-propenylphenol.

Isoeugenyl acetate.

Isoeugenyl benzyl ether; benzyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl ethyl ether; 2-ethoxy-5-propenyl-anisole; ethyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl formate.

Isoeugenyl methyl ether; 4-propenylveratrole; methyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl phenylacetate.

Isojasmone; mixture of 2-hexylidenecyclopentanone and 2-hexyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one.

[alpha]-Isomethylionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-3-buten-2-one; methyl γ-ionone.

Isopropyl acetate.


Isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol.

Isopropyl benzoate.

Ï쳌-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol; cuminic alcohol; Ï쳌-cymen-7-ol.

Isopropyl butyrate.

Isopropyl cinnamate.

Isopropyl formate.

Isopropyl hexanoate.

Isopropyl isobutyrate.

Isopropyl isovalerate.

Ï쳌-Isopropylphenylacetaldehyde; Ï쳌-cymen-7-carboxaldehyde.

Isopropyl phenylacetate.

3-(Ï쳌-Isopropylphenyl)-propionaldehyde; Ï쳌-isopropylhydrocinnamaldehyde; cuminyl acetaldehyde.

Isopropyl propionate.

Isopulegol; p- menth-8-en-3-ol.

Isopulegone; p- menth-8-en-3-one.

Isopulegyl acetate.


Isovaleric acid.

cis- Jasmone; 3-methyl-2-(2-pentenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one.

Lauric aldehyde; dodecanal.

Lauryl acetate.

Lauryl alcohol; 1-dodecanol.

Lepidine; 4-methylquinoline.

Levulinic acid.

Linalool oxide; cis- and trans- 2-vinyl-2-methyl-5-(1'-hydroxy-1'-methylethyl) tetrahydrofuran.

Linalyl anthranilate; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl anthranilate.

Linalyl benzoate.

Linalyl butyrate.

Linalyl cinnamate.

Linalyl formate.

Linalyl hexanoate.

Linalyl isobutyrate.

Linalyl isovalerate.

Linalyl octanoate.

Linalyl propionate.

Maltol; 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one.

Menthadienol; p- mentha-1,8(10)-dien-9-ol.

p- Mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol; perillyl alcohol.

Menthadienyl acetate; p- mentha-1,8(10)-dien-9-yl acetate.

p- Menth-3-en-1-ol.

1-p- Menthen--9-yl acetate; p- menth-1-en-9-yl acetate.

Menthol; 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol.

Menthone; p -menthan-3-one.

Menthyl acetate; p- menth-3-yl acetate.

Menthyl isovalerate; p- menth-3-yl isovalerate.

o- Methoxybenzaldehyde.

p- Methoxybenzaldehyde; p- anisaldehyde.

o- Methoxycinnamaldehyde.

2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol; 4-methylguaiacol; 2-methoxy-p- cresol.

4-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone; anisyl acetone.

1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-penten-3-one; methoxystyryl isopropyl ketone.

1-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-1-penten-3-one; [alpha]-methylanisylidene acetone; ethone.

1-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone; anisylmethyl ketone; anisic ketone.

2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol; p- vinylguaiacol.

Methyl acetate.

4'-Methylacetophenone; p- methylacetophenone; methyl p- tolyl ketone.

2-Methylallyl butyrate; 2-methyl-2-propenl-yl butyrate.

Methyl anisate.

o- Methylanisole; o- cresyl methyl ether.

p- Methylanisole; p- cresyl methyl ether; p- methoxytoluene.

Methyl benzoate.

Methylbenzyl acetate, mixed o-,m-,p-.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl acetate; styralyl acetate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl alcohol; styralyl alcohol.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl butyrate; styralyl butyrate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl isobutyrate; styralyl isobutyrate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl formate; styralyl formate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl propionate; styralyl propionate.


2-Methylbutyl isovalerate.

Methyl p-tert- butylphenylacetate.

2-Methylbutyraldehyde; methyl ethyl acetaldehyde.

3-Methylbutyraldehyde; isovaleraldehyde.

Methyl butyrate.

2-Methylbutyric acid.


p- Methylcinnamaldehyde.

Methyl cinnamate.


Methylcyclopentenolone; 3-methylcyclopentane-1,2-dione.

Methyl disulfide; dimethyl disulfide.

Methyl ester of rosin, partially hydrogenated (as defined in § 172.615); methyl dihydroabietate.

Methyl heptanoate.

2-Methylheptanoic acid.




Methyl hexanoate.

Methyl 2-hexanoate.

Methyl p- hydroxybenzoate; methylparaben.

Methyl [alpha]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl [beta]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl [delta]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl-)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl isobutyrate.

2-Methyl-3-(p- isopropylphenyl)-propionalde-hyde; [alpha]-methyl-p- isopropylhydro- cinnamal- dehyde; cyclamen aldehyde.

Methyl isovalerate.

Methyl laurate.

Methyl mercaptan; methanethiol.

Methyl o- methoxybenzoate.

Methyl N- methylanthranilate; dimethyl anthranilate.

Methyl 2-methylbutyrate.


Methyl 4-methylvalerate.

Methyl myristate.

Methyl [beta]-naphthyl ketone; 2'-acetonaphthone.

Methyl nonanoate.

Methyl 2-nonenoate.

Methyl 2-nonynoate; methyloctyne carbonate.

2-Methyloctanal; methyl hexyl acetaldehyde.

Methyl octanoate.

Methyl 2-octynoate; methyl heptine carbonate.

4-Methyl-2,3-pentanedione; acetyl isobutyryl.

4-Methyl-2-pentanone; methyl isobutyl ketone.

[beta]-Methylphenethyl alcohol; hydratropyl alcohol.

Methyl phenylacetate.


2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate; dimethylphenylethyl carbinyl acetate.

2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl isobutyrate; dimethylphenyl ethylcarbinyl isobutyrate.

3-Methyl-2-phenylbutyraldehyde; [alpha]-isopropyl phenylacetaldehyde.

Methyl 4-phenylbutyrate.

4-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pentanone; benzyl isobutyl ketone.

Methyl 3-phenylpropionate; methyl hydrocinnamate.

Methyl propionate.


Methyl sulfide.

3-Methylthiopropionaldehyde; methional.

2-Methyl-3-tolylpropionaldehyde, mixed o-, m-, p-.

2-Methylundecanal; methyl nonyl acetaldehyde.

Methyl 9-undecenoate.

Methyl 2-undecynoate; methyl decyne carbonate.

Methyl valerate.

2-Methylvaleric acid.

Myristaldehyde; tetradecanal.

d- Neomenthol; 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol.

Nerol; cis- 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol.

Nerolidol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol.

Neryl acetate.

Neryl butyrate.

Neryl formate.

Neryl isobutyrate.

Neryl isovalerate.

Neryl propionate.


γ-Nonalactone; 4-hydroxynonanoic acid, γ-lactone; aldehyde C-18.

Nonanal; pelargonic aldehyde.

1,3-Nonanediol acetate, mixed esters.

Nonanoic acid; pelargonic acid.

2-Nonanone; methylheptyl ketone.

3-Nonanon-1-yl acetate; 1-hydroxy-3-nonanone acetate.

Nonyl acetate.

Nonyl alcohol; 1-nonanol.

Nonyl octanoate.

Nonyl isovalerate.

Nootkatone; 5,6-dimethyl-8-isopropenyl-bicyclo[4,4,0]-dec-1-en-3-one.

Ocimene; trans -[beta]-ocimene; 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene.

γ-Octalactone; 4-hydroxyoctanoic acid, γ-lactone.

Octanal; caprylaldehyde.

Octanal dimethyl acetal.

1-Octanol; octyl alcohol.



2-Octanone; methyl hexyl ketone.

3-Octanone; ethyl amyl ketone.


1-Octen-3-ol; amyl vinyl carbinol.

1-Octen-3-yl acetate.

Octyl acetate.

3-Octyl acetate.

Octyl butyrate.

Octyl formate.

Octyl heptanoate.

Octyl isobutyrate.

Octyl isovalerate.

Octyl octanoate.

Octyl phenylacetate.

Octyl propionate.

[PI]-Pentadecalactone; 15-hydroxypentadeca-noic acid, [PI]-lactone; pentadecanolide; angelica lactone.

2,3-Pentanedione; acetyl propionyl.

2-Pentanone; methyl propyl ketone.

4-Pentenoic acid.


Perillaldehyde; 4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;p- mentha-1,8-dien-7-al.

Perillyl acetate; p- mentha-1,8-dien-7-yl acetate.

[alpha]-Phellandrene; Ï쳌-mentha-1,5-diene.

Phenethyl acetate.

Phenethyl alcohol; [beta]-phenylethyl alcohol.

Phenethyl anthranilate.

Phenethyl benzoate.

Phenethyl butyrate.

Phenethyl cinnamate.

Phenethyl formate.

Phenethyl isobutyrate.

Phenethyl isovalerate.

Phenethyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Phenethyl phenylacetate.

Phenethyl propionate.

Phenethyl salicylate.

Phenethyl senecioate; phenethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate.

Phenethyl tiglate.

Phenoxyacetic acid.

2-Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate.

Phenylacetaldehyde; [alpha]-toluic aldehyde.

Phenylacetaldehyde 2,3-butylene glycol acetal.

Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

Phenylacetaldehyde glyceryl acetal.

Phenylacetic acid; [alpha]-toluic acid.

4-Phenyl-2-butanol; phenylethyl methyl carbinol.

4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-ol; methyl styryl carbinol.


4-Phenyl-2-butyl acetate; phenylethyl methyl carbinyl acetate.

1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol; phenylethyl methyl ethyl carbinol.

1-Phenyl-1-propanol; phenylethyl carbinol.

3-Phenyl-1-propanol; hydrocinnamyl alcohol.

2-Phenylpropionaldehyde; hydratropalde-hyde.

3-Phenylpropionaldehyde; hydrocinnamaldehyde.

2-Phenylpropionalde-hyde dimethyl acetal; hydratropic aldehyde dimethyl acetal.

3-Phenylpropionic acid; hydrocinnamic acid.

3-Phenylpropyl acetate.

2-Phenylpropyl butyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl cinnamate.

3-Phenylpropyl formate.

3-Phenylpropyl hexanoate.

2-Phenylpropyl isobutyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl isobutyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl isovalerate.

3-Phenylpropyl propionate.


[alpha]-Pinene; 2-pinene.

[beta]-Pinene; 2(10)-pinene.

Pine tar oil.

Pinocarveol; 2(10)-pinen-3-ol.



d- Piperitone; p- menth-1-en-3-one.

Piperitenone; p- mentha-1,4(8)-dien-3-one.

Piperitenone oxide; 1,2-epoxy-p- menth-4-(8)-en-3-one.

Piperonyl acetate; heliotropyl acetate.

Piperonyl isobutyrate.


Polysorbate 20; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate.

Polysorbate 60; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostereate.

Polysorbate 80; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate.

Potassium acetate.

Propenylguaethol; 6-ethoxy-m- anol.


Propyl acetate.

Propyl alcohol; 1-propanol.

p- Propyl anisole; dihydroanethole.

Propyl benzoate.

Propyl butyrate.

Propyl cinnamate.

Propyl disulfide.

Propyl formate.

Propyl 2-furanacrylate.

Propyl heptanoate.

Propyl hexanoate.

Propyl p- hydroxybenzoate; propylparaben.


Propyl isobutyrate.

Propyl isovalerate.

Propyl mercaptan.

[alpha]-Propylphenethyl alcohol.

Propyl phenylacetate.

Propyl propionate.

Pyroligneous acid extract.


Pyruvic acid.

Rhodinol; 3,7-dimethyl-7-octen-1-ol; l- citronellol.

Rhodinyl acetate.

Rhodinyl butyrate.

Rhodinyl formate.

Rhodinyl isobutyrate.

Rhodinyl isovalerate.

Rhodinyl phenylacetate.

Rhodinyl propionate.

Rum ether; ethyl oxyhydrate.


Santalol, [alpha] and [beta].

Santalyl acetate.

Santalyl phenylacetate.


Sorbitan monostearate.

Sucrose octaacetate.



[alpha]-Terpineol; p- menth-1-en-8-ol.


Terpinolene; p- menth-1,4(8)-diene.

Terpinyl acetate.

Terpinyl anthranilate.

Terpinyl butyrate.

Terpinyl cinnamate.

Terpinyl formate.

Terpinyl isobutyrate.

Terpinyl isovalerate.

Terpinyl propionate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl propionate.

Tetrahydro-pseudo-ionone; 6,10-dimethyl-9-undecen-2-one.

Tetrahydrolinalool; 3,7-dimethyloctan-3-ol.

Tetramethyl ethylcyclohexenone; mixture of 5-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 5-ethyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one.

2-Thienyl mercaptan; 2-thienylthiol.

thymol .

Tolualdehyde glyceryl acetal, mixed o, m, p.

Tolualdehydes, mixed o, m, p.

p- Tolylacetaldehyde.

o- Tolyl acetate; o- cresyl acetate.

p- Tolyl acetate; p- cresyl acetate.

4-(p- Tolyl)-2-butanone; p- methylbenzylacetone.

p- Tolyl isobutyrate.

p- Tolyl laurate.

p- Tolyl phenylacetate.

2-(p- Tolyl)-propionaldehyde; p- methylhydratropic aldehyde.

Tributyl acetylcitrate.


2,3-Undecadione; acetyl nonyryl.

γ-Undecalactone; 4-hydroxyundecanoic acid γ-lactone; peach aldehyde; aldehyde C-14.


2-Undecanone; methyl nonyl ketone.

9-Undecenal; undecenoic aldehyde.


Undecen-1-ol; undecylenic alcohol.

10-Undecen-1-yl acetate.

Undecyl alcohol.

Valeraldehyde; pentanal.

Valeric acid; pentanoic acid.

Vanillin acetate; acetyl vanillin.


Verbenol; 2-pinen-4-ol.

Zingerone; 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone.

(c) [delta]-Decalactone and [delta]-dodecalactone when used separately or in combination in oleomargarine are used at levels not to exceed 10 parts per million and 20 parts per million, respectively, in accordance with § 166.110 of this chapter.

(d) BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) may be used as an antioxidant in flavoring substances whereby the additive does not exceed 0.5 percent of the essential (volatile) oil content of the flavoring substance.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 42 FR 23148, May 6, 1977; 43 FR 19843, May 9, 1978; 45 FR 22915, Apr. 4, 1980; 47 FR 27810, June 25, 1982; 48 FR 10812, Mar. 15, 1983; 48 FR 51907, Nov. 15, 1983; 49 FR 5747, Feb. 15, 1984; 50 FR 42932, Oct. 23, 1985; 54 FR 7402, Feb. 21, 1989; 61 FR 14245, Apr. 1, 1996; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 83 FR 50490, 50503, Oct. 9, 2018]