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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of April 1 2018.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2018]
[CITE: 21CFR184.1588]



TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B--FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED)

PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS

Sec. 184.1588 Pectins.

(a) The pectins (CAS Reg. No. 9000-69-5) are a group of complex, high molecular weight polysaccharides found in plants and composed chiefly of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units. Portions of the carboxly group occur as methyl esters, and the remaining carboxyl groups exist in the form of the free acid or as its ammonium, potassium, or sodium (CAS Reg. No. 9000-59-8) salts, and in some types as the acid amide. Thus, the pectins regulated in this section are the high-ester pectins, low-ester pectins, amidated pectins, pectinic acids, and pectinates. Pectin is produced commercially by extracting citrus peel, apple pomace, or beet pulp with hot dilute acid (pH 1.0 to 3.5, 70deg. to 90 deg. C). The extract is filtered, and pectin is then precipitated from the clear extract with ethanol or isopropanol, or as the copper or aluminum salt. The acid extract is sometimes spray- or roller-dried, or it is concentrated to be sold as liquid pectin.

(b) The ingredients meet the specifications of the Food Chemical Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 215, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(c) In accordance with 184.1(b)(1), the ingredients are used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of these ingredients as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as direct human food ingredients is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use:

(1) The ingredients are used as emulsifiers as defined in 170.3(o)(8) of this chapter and as stabilizers and thickeners as defined in 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter.

(2) The ingredients are used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice.

(d) Prior sanctions for these ingredients different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been waived.

[48 FR 51149, Nov. 7, 1983]

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