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Antioxid Redox Signal 2007 Jul;9(7):991-9

Gating the radical hemoglobin to macrophages: the anti-inflammatory role of CD163, a scavenger receptor.

Schaer DJ, Alayash AI, Buehler PW

Alayash AI (reprint author), Univ Zurich, Med Clin B, Res Unit, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland Univ Zurich, Med Clin B, Res Unit, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland US FDA, Ctr Biol Evaluat & Res, Div Hematol, Lab Biochem & Vasc Biol, Bethesda, MD 20014 USA


Efficient extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) clearance is essential to prevent oxidative- and nitrosative-mediated toxicity. CD163 belongs to group B of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) protein family found on the surface of monocytes and macrophages and is responsible for Hb-haptoglobin (Hp) complex uptake. Hb uptake by CD163 was thought to proceed exclusively through an Hp-dependent pathway. However, Hb can interact directly with CD163 via a low affinity binding when Hp is absent. As a result, a two-phase hypothesis of Hb clearance by monocytes/macrophages suggests that Hp-Hb binding to CD163 is the primary mechanism of plasma Hb clearance, while clearance of Hb by direct binding to CD163 is secondary to Hp depletion. The authors have considered the ligand specificity of CD163 in human macrophages and in a heterologous gene expression model to demonstrate that Hb is effectively endocytosed by CD163 in the absence of Hp. Additionally, the authors have considered Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) administration as a unique situation during which direct CD163 uptake may be relevant as a mechanism of clearance. However, the nature of chemical modifications introduced onto the Hb molecule and/or oxidative changes induced in the protein appear to influence the extent of CD163 interaction and cellular uptake. Here, an overview and novel insights into the role of CD163 in Hb redox inactivation and clearance are provided.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #17508920
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2011-10-04 Entry Last Modified: 2012-08-29