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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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J Agric Food Chem 2020 May 6;68(18):5241-8

Concentrations of the opium alkaloids morphine, codeine, and thebaine in poppy seeds are reduced after thermal and washing treatments but are not affected when incorporated in a model baked product.

Shetge SA, Dzakovich MP, Cooperstone JL, Kleinmeier D, Redan BW


Limited information exists on the effectiveness of potential treatments to reduce levels of opium alkaloids that may be present in seeds from poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Poppy seeds containing morphine at relatively lower (14.7 mg kg(-1)) and higher (210.0 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were subjected to dry heat and steam treatments, water washing, and baking. Sample extracts were then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the opium alkaloids morphine, codeine, and thebaine. The results indicated that thermal treatment promoted opium alkaloid degradation in poppy seed samples, with a 50% loss of morphine observed after 30-40 min at 200 °C. Water washing reduced concentrations of opium alkaloids in poppy seeds by approximately 50-80%, while steam treatment resulted in reduction of morphine in only one sample type. Importantly, baking had no significant effect on concentrations of opium alkaloids. Overall, these results indicate that opium alkaloids may not be significantly affected by baking or steam application and that poppy seeds may require water washing or extended thermal treatment to promote reduction of these compounds.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #32302121 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01681
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Food
Entry Created: 2020-07-05 Entry Last Modified: 2020-08-02